Aug 29, 2014

To all who admired Burgess Laughlin, I'm sorry to say he has passed away. Please find his obituary message on his main website:

Burgess, you will be missed.

Jun 27, 2014


BACKGROUND. These are the relevant events.
1. From age 18 to 25, 1962-1969, I smoked heavily, then stopped and never smoked again.
2. Around 2004 I discovered through a CAT scan that I have emphysema (mild in right, medium in left).
3. Around June 1, 2014, I had spring allergy symptoms: sniffling, sneezing, a little coughing. (Adopting my subset of the McDougall Program diet got rid of earlier terrible spring-time allergies:
4. A sore throat developed. The coughing worsened. At one point, I coughed very deeply and felt a stabbing pain in my left lung, low.
5. A few days later, I began coughing up a little blood (clotted), as well as a lot of mucus.
6. On last Saturday, I coughed up about two cups of blood. A kind neighbor took me to the local hospital, where I received blood tests (yes, I am thin; no, I am not anemic) and chest x-rays. I coughed up some more blood. The ER doctor prescribed an antibiotic (Augmentin, which wrecked my gut and I needed to discontinue after only two days)

The most likely explanation of events is that the coughing ruptured an artery in my lung most weakened by emphysema, the blood accumulated in the lung, and over several days the body coughed it up—all a perfectly natural sequence of events.

RESOLUTION. The coughing of blood stopped (classic bell curve) within two days. Now, almost a week after the hospital event, I am very slowly recovering. Everyday I can walk a little further. I can work a little longer. I need less cough syrup to suppress the cough. The cough interfered with eating; my BMI dropped to 15.6, in spite of adding fat sources: walnuts, avocados, and olives.

My primary care physician recommended another antibiotic, doxycycline, and I am taking it for 10 days—without intestinal distress.

A CASE OF OVERDIAGNOSIS. My PCP told me that the radiologist at the hospital suspected that I have lung cancer. His "reasoning" was this: He couldn't see all parts of my lungs because I have a lot of scar tissue from 17 pneumothoraces in the last 52 years. The radiologist recommended a thorough investigation (in the radiology department) to either find the lung cancer or decide there is zero chance that I have lung cancer. Among other things he recommended a CAT scan (45 times more radiation than a normal chest x-ray!).

I refused any more investigation.

The radiologist's argument amounts to this: There is a dark space under my bed. Monsters can lurk in dark spaces. Therefore there probably is a monster there.

AGREEMENT. My PCP and I have agreed once again that "less is often better than more." We also agreed that my approach to medical care is the "Shelton Way" not the "Bellevue Way." I live in a small timber town, Shelton, but it is the county seat. It has a county hospital that networks with formerly independent, specialized clinics. My clinic is now part of that network.  I am unsure, but I assume that my doctor's reference to "Bellevue" apparently points to an advanced research hospital. I am unsure whether he was referring to Bellevue, Washington or to the Bellevue Hospital in New York.

The Shelton Way means: Not expecting answers to every medical questions; accepting ambiguity; being guided by symptoms not by what "might be there." The Bellevue Way means leaving no questions unanswered; resolving all ambiguity by conducting all possible tests, no matter how expensive; and worrying about what might be wrong, even if no symptoms or other evidence point in that direction.

I have told my doctor that if I cannot locally receive the medical care I supposedly need, then I will do without that medical care. I refuse to chase the latest testing and treatment. I am ready to die if locally available medical care is insufficient.

CONCLUSION. This episode has been very unpleasant, but I have learned and I have increased my respect for my PCP.

Burgess Laughlin
Author of The Power and the Glory: The Key Ideas and Crusading Lives of Eight Debaters of Reason vs. Faith, described here:

Oct 4, 2013

The Way of Eating I Recommend

I eat what I eat because of particular medical problems, many perhaps arising from a "leaky gut." I describe my individual way of eating here:

What I eat is a subset of the McDougall Program way of eating. That Program is the best therapeutic way of eating for some individuals who are ill—for example, with obesity:

Nutritionist Jeff Novick lists diet programs similar in their overall pattern:

Occasionally friends ask what diet I recommend for maintaining or enhancing health for a lifetime. The way of eating that I generally recommend is not what I eat. The diet I recommend is the one I learned forty years ago, at the age of 30, from the book, Live Longer Now: The First One Hundred Years of Your Life, by Nathan Pritikin and others. A few used, inexpensive paperback copies of the book are available:

Some of the details in the book are probably out of date now, but details are not important here. The book is helpful but you do not need it to understand what I recommend based on my experience.

At age 30, I had clogged arteries around my heart, chest pains (especially when I was under physical or mental stress), pain on the inside of my left arm (under stress), and high blood pressure. I had been eating the Standard American Diet—high fat, high protein, and Calorie Rich and Processed foods (C.R.A.P.). By adopting the Pritikin diet, described below, I lost 75 pounds in 15 months and got rid of all my symptoms.

OUTLINE OF THE DIET. Following are the defining characteristics of the diet I adopted, adapted, and now recommend:

1. Mostly coarse plant foods. That means fruit, vegetables and starches. Eat the fruit raw or cooked; eat the vegs cooked usually; and eat the starches cooked almost always. Eat the fruit, vegs, and starches in variety. Example starches are sweet potatoes, potatoes, beans, peas, grains, and so forth. Eat your food intact or whole. Intact means you can see the original food. An apple is an intact food; applesauce is not intact, though it may still be a whole food, that is, nothing significant has been removed and no substances have been added. Avoid juices and "smoothies" unless you have severe dental problems.

2. Overall, very low fat, with roughly 10% or fewer of the calories coming from fat. You do not need to count calories or weigh foods. Eat the right intact/whole foods, in roughly the right proportions (see below), and you will naturally eat foods that are low in calories and high in nutrients.

3. Very small amounts of meat rich in Vitamin B12 and maybe Vitamin D, the only essential nutrients missing from plant foods. (Sunshine may not supply enough Vitamin D if you live in a cloudy climate, as I do.) My information sources say the meats richest in B12 are clams, oysters, chicken liver, beef liver, and perhaps red salmon; salmon apparently also supplies Vitamin D. One or two tablespoons of one of these per meal should be sufficient to get the tiny amounts of B12 and D we need. Eat the meats in wide variety, but in very small amounts: shellfish, fish, poultry, beef, sheep, and so forth. The key is small amounts and mostly from the highest sources of Vitamins B12 and D.

4. No added, isolated fat. This means no butter, margarine, olive oil, bacon grease, and so forth. Learn to boil, bake, and steam foods, not fry them. The fats we need are contained in the foods we eat. We do not need to add isolated fats. 

Except for step 3, this way of eating is the McDougall Program Regular Diet. I am suggesting adding only enough of four or five meats to get naturally Vitamin B12 and maybe D—not from pills.

PROPORTIONS. I suggest roughly these proportions:
60% starches—intact or whole. Examples are potatoes, yams, and rice.
25% vegetables—intact or whole. Examples are spinach and bell peppers.
10% fruit—intact or whole. Examples are blueberries and oranges.
5% meats high in B12 and maybe D—in very small quantities, such as 1 tablespoon per meal. Examples are clams, oysters, chicken liver, beef liver, and red salmon.

EXCLUSIONS. Avoid all dairy products (though Pritikin allowed them in small quantities if very low fat). Avoid all C.R.A.P. foods such as candy and ice cream. Exclude alcohol, coffee, and tobaccoYou may want to exclude wheat and soy, two foods that cause trouble for some individuals. Last, minimize salt. (Because I have a tendency to high blood pressure, my current, one-year experiment is to eliminate all salt. So far, my blood pressure is lower.)

EXAMPLE. An example meal is: A large bowl of rice, a mound of spinach on top, an oyster or two mixed into the rice for flavoring, and an apple. Season it as you want: soy sauce, hot sauce, or other very low or non-fat condiments. Chew thoroughly and eat slowly.

EXERCISE. Pritikin also recommended exercise, especially "roving," which means walking plus occasionally running a short distance within each walk, if running is appropriate to your medical condition. Other exercises may be suitable, but I would recommend not sitting down to exercise, especially if you sit while working or in your usual entertainment. The important point is to stand up and move daily. You might also work with light weights or do calisthenics in addition to a light aerobic routine. 

RESULTS. On the Pritikin Program, all my heart disease symptoms disappeared and I lost about one pound per week, on average, for 75 weeks—without trying to lose weight and without restricting the amount that I ate. Of course, most of the weight loss occurred at the start. I only wanted to be healthy. I succeeded. I am nearing 70.

LOSING TOO MUCH? If you lose too much weight following the four steps above, add processed foods such as whole-grain pancakes and noodles, as well as small amounts of high-fat foods (whole or intact) such as nuts, avocados, olives, and so forth.

SUMMARY. I consider my recommended way of eating to be "whole food, plant-based." The "base" of the way of eating is plants (whole or intact), though this way of eating is not exclusively plants. This way of eating was generally the Asian way of eating until Western foods began making Asians fat. Think of Chinese farmers one hundred years ago. They ate mostly rice and sweet potatoes, vegetables (such as greens and green beans), and some fruit, with just enough meat to flavor the starches.

P. S. — Nutritionist Jeff Novick, for whom I have a lot of respect, discusses the spectrum of generally healthy diets, including those that include small amounts of animal products. See his December 5, 2013 article on his website: 

Burgess Laughlin
Author, The Power and the Glory: The Key Ideas and Crusading Lives of Eight Debaters of Reason vs. Faith, described here.

Oct 3, 2013

Tachycardia, Arrhythmia

Last updated: May 16, 2014

This post summarizes my experiences with episodes of tachycardia and accompanying arrhythmia. My earlier posts, which partly were journals of events as they happened, were:
(1) March 30, 2011:
(2) January 25, 2011:

EPISODES. Through the last twenty years, I have had five episodes of tachycardia (rapid heart rate). 

EPISODE 1. The first episode, in Portland, Oregon occurred around twenty years ago, after Christmas day, about thirty minutes after an extraordinarily large evening meal. I was out walking and bent over to retie my shoe laces. Emergency medical people said my rate was about 175 beats per minute (bpm). In an emergency room of a hospital, a doctor injected a substance (unknown to me now) that stopped the racing and restored my normal rate of about 65 bpm.

EPISODE 2. The second episode occurred about five years ago, in Auburn, Washington, shortly before Christmas day, about thirty minutes after a very large evening meal, while I was cleaning my kitchen. An emergency room doctor tried but failed to stop the racing heart by injecting a substance through a tube. Doctors there persuaded me to stay in the hospital to test the functions of my kidneys, liver, thyroid, and pancreas. All were operating normally. The doctors also checked my lungs for an embolism and found none. Likewise, a CAT scan revealed no brain tumors or other problems. Finally after three days of testing, the doctors said "cause unknown" for the racing heart and slight arrhythmia (either atrial fibrillation or flutter, but the diagnosis was not clear). About three months later, I underwent electrical cardioversion, a shock to the heart, and it succeeded in returning my rate to normal and without arrhythmia.

EPISODE 3. A year after the e-cardioversion success my heart rate again went into tachycardia. This was my third episode; it occurred in Shelton, Washington. This episode happened in early March while I was sleeping—after a very large evening meal. The emergency room doctor was unable to stop it. They released me (at 2 am) to return home. My rate was about 135 bpm. This episode ended after about six months of medication (described below) designed to lower the heart rate.

EPISODE 4. A fourth episode occurred, also in Shelton, about a year later, again in March (2013) and again in the evening after a large meal eaten hurriedly and without adequate chewing. This episode ended after about nine months of medication—and three months of taking Vitamin D3 (1000 IU three times weekly).

EPISODE 5. My fifth episode began on April 29, 2014, after about four months of no tachycardia or irregularity (December 2013 to April 2014). The event started in the evening. The immediate trigger was eating a meal too quickly. I bloated. Then after dinner I bent over to untie my shoe laces. My heart began racing. I could not stop it with deep breathing and back bends. Compression of the heart seems to have been the cause. I began taking 50 mg Metoprolol and 0.25 mg Digoxin. In the following two weeks I went through the familiar stages: (1) At first the medications seem to have little effect; (2) after a few days the heart rate dropped into the 80s; (3) on May 11 (much sooner than in earlier episodes), my heart rate dropped into the 40s-50s. I needed to cut back my walking and walk more slowly too. I reduced my digoxin to 0.125 mg, and then after a few days, deleted it as my heart rate continued to be in the 40s. This episode has shown faster recovery than ever before.

SUMMARY. There is a general pattern: onset in the dark months of December through April; often in the evening after hastily eating a large meal; often following compression by bending over, though twice the racing heart rate began in my sleep.

MEDICATIONS. In the first episode, the ER physician released me from the ER without prescribing any medications. In the second episode, while I was in the hospital for the long series of tests, the physician prescribed 100 mg of Metoprolol, taken daily, which is the standard dosage. (The range of dosage is now about 25 to 400 mg/day.) I said I preferred to start at the bottom of the range and work up if that amount was insufficient. (The purpose of Metoprolol is mainly to reduce the heart rate, although it also lowers blood pressure.) The doctor insisted on 100 mg that first day. That night, the hospital monitors sent an alarm to the head nurse because my heart rate down into the low thirties. The nurse said I might be a hyperresponder.) The doctor adjusted the dosage to 50 mg. That brought my heart rate down to the mid forties in the following night, but no lower. (Normally, without medication, the heart rate is lowest in the deepest part of sleep, typically about four or five in the morning.)

After leaving the hospital in the second episode, I began working with a non-interventionist cardiologist, Dr. VK. After long discussion, he recommended that I try the first step in the staircase of treatments available: electrical cardioversion. Preparation for that treatment was long: about 10 weeks of treatment with a variety of drugs designed to shape my heart's action. Dr. VK said my arrhythmia was difficult to diagnose. He was not sure whether it was atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation. After a treadmill and other tests, he decided on atrial fibrillation.

During this period of preparing for e-conversion, I took Pradaxa (an expensive, strong anti-coagulant), which I used reluctantly, Multaq (apparently designed to "shape" the rhythm of the heart beat), and Metoprolol (50 mg, time release). I took the Metoprolol at breakfast and the other pills at lunch and dinner. 

The time release version of Metoprolol, which is more expensive, is supposed to have a steady effect of lowering the heart rate throughout the day but loses its strength somewhat very late at night when the heart rate is normally lower already. Even the low dosage of 50 mg made me very sleepy after breakfast for about two hours. (Fortunately I am retired and do not need to drive, which would have been dangerous.) Another result for about one month was intestinal upset (gas, loose stools), but this diminished with time. I suspect that the Multaq (prescribed for only a month or so as preparation for e-conversion) and the Pradaxa also contributed to the upset.

After the successful e-conversion, ending my second episode of tachycardia, I took 50 mg of Metoprolol and an 81 mg aspirin daily. (The aspirin, like the Pradaxa, is designed to reduce the chance of a blood clot forming in the heart, when the heart is not operating properly; the clot can be expelled from the heart and into an artery, thus blocking the artery and causing a stroke.)

After the onset of my third episode, I again took 50 mg of Metoprolol. I had much less intestinal upset, and even that diminished within two weeks or so. The gut does seem to become accustomed to the Metoprolol.After my fourth episode has ended, I continued to take 50 mg of Metoprolol. I also continued to take Digoxin. One of my physicians recommended it as a way of addressing the slight atrial flutter that accompanied the fourth episode of tachycardia. 

The prescription for Digoxin for my fourth episode was for 0.25 mg. I started by taking it at dinner. (I always take these heart tablets in the middle of meals unless the doctor says otherwise.) It seemed to make me jumpy. Going to sleep in the evening was difficult, which was unusual for me. I switched to taking the Digoxin at lunch, and that ended the jumpiness and sleeplessness.

After about two months of taking 0.25 mg of Digoxin (an extract from Foxglove, the drug that painter Vincent Van Gogh was taking when he cut his ear off with a razor), I began having vision problems: bright lights seemed to flicker. I also felt a little disoriented and I was not able to walk straight. I cut the Digoxin tablets in half, and the problems went away. (Any pill that has a "score" down the middle can be cut in half.)

My cardiologist for my second episode, Dr. VK, convinced me that even if the tachycardia disappeared, I should continue taking the Metoprolol for the remainder of my life, as a way of reducing the chance of the problem returning. That is why now, after my fourth episode has ended (lasting six months), I continue to take it. For the moment, I will also continue the 0.125 mg of Digoxin. I may wean away from it in a month or so and judge the effect.

JOURNAL OF READINGS. I measure and record my heart rate and blood pressure at least once daily, usually about 30 minutes after breakfast. Meals make the rate go up. The lead up to a bowel movement makes the heart rate go up. Of course any other physical or emotional event (such as reading the news) can elevate the heart rate and blood pressure. 

USUAL CAUSES. According to what I have read and have been told by physicians, the usual trigger for tachycardia is one or more of these: surgery (and the anesthesia); overweight; severe long-term stress; liver problems; kidney problems; brain tumors; embolisms in the lung; alcohol; stimulants (such as strong coffee); thyroid problems. Most victims of tachycardia are old, overweight, and damaged through an unhealthy lifestyle. However, some victims of tachycardia are young athletes—such as basketball players and runners—who subject their heart to long-term physical stress.

I am old (70), but my first episode occurred 18 years ago. I have been lean or very lean (now Body Mass Index of 18) for most of my adult life. I have frequently pushed myself physically (running up the steepest hills for the challenge of it, for example), and pushing myself to work very long hours without adequate relaxation. I still do not know the long-term cause of my tachycardia episodes, but I suspect that the physical pressure of eating too much volume was probably the direct trigger in each case.

BEHAVIORAL CHANGES. Why did my fourth episode of tachycardia stop by itself? Why was my fifth episode so short and stopped by itself? Possible causes are:

(1) Curative effect of taking Vitamin D3 for several months. I was taking a standard, low dose of 1000 IU three times weekly. This seems to me, a layman, to be the most likely cure. Inadequate Vitamin D intake was the most likely cause of the tachcardia: All four onsets began in the December to March period of the years, the time when my Vitamin D level would be lowest. On my diet, I take in no Vitamin D from food (no fish, for example) and I live in rain-forest country, where, even walking outside two hours daily, I receive little sunshine from September to May.

(2) A cumulating effect of the medications. Does the Metoprolol "train" the nerve to fire at a slower rate? I do not know.

(3) Stopping  "pushing" myself when I walk; I now still walk up steep hills, but I do so slowly, without accelerating my heart rate much. I continue to walk two hours daily, but I cover less distance.

(4) Avoiding stressful situations such as reading the news. I can do nothing about the events featured in the news. They make me angry or sad, but I have no way to correct them. Now, when eating, I read a novel instead of reading the news stream of mostly terrible events.

(5) Monitoring myself: Am I physically and mentally relaxed? Am I focused on one task? Being relaxed does not mean being unproductive or working less.

(6) Stretching more, especially before sleeping.

(7) Resting more. A short nap can reduce my heart rate by 20 bpm.

(8) Avoiding all stimulants, but still drinking sufficient liquid. I avoid coffee, black tea, green tea, and even herbal teas that might stimulate the heart rate. The only teas I drink at the moment are Lemon Balm and Mint and occasionally "Nighty Night," a mixture designed to encourage relaxation and sleep. By drinking one cup of herbal tea or water (with or without a squeeze of lemon) after each meal, I consume plenty of liquid. Plus, most of my meals are either potato stew or steamed rice (which absorbs a lot of water in cooking).

(8) Being objective, by which I mean focusing on objects directly in front of and not worrying about real or imaginary events occurring outside of my life. This focusing includes engaging in one task at a time and not multitasking. Often slower is faster.

(9) Chewing my food thoroughly and eating slowly, without stress.

Burgess Laughlin
Author of The Power and the Glory: The Key Ideas and Crusading Lives of Eight Debaters of Reason vs. Faith, described here

P.S. If you have successfully stopped your own tachycardia episodes, please comment below.

Dec 18, 2012

A Low-Sulphur Elimination Diet

Of all the inflammation problems I have had, my dermatitis is always the first to appear if I eat something inflammatory. I can begin to diagnose the problem by following my low-sulphur elimination diet. The term "elimination" refers to eliminating from the diet all foods that are known or suspected to cause inflammation. The few foods remaining are the Elimination Diet.

RATIONALE FOR A LOW-SULPHUR DIET AS A TEST. Why are the foods on my Elimination Diet low sulphur? Because, for me, the concentration of sulphur in a food is the best predictor of whether I will get an inflammation reaction. (I do not know whether sulphur is the cause of the inflammation or whether it is a "confounder," that is, something that is always present when the real cause is present.)

Example foods that are very high in sulphur are mustard and clams. All animal products, except isolated fats, are high in sulphur. Almost all nuts, beans, peas, and grains are high in sulphur. (There are exceptions.) Example foods that are very low in sulphur are yams, celery, and many fruits.

PROCEDURE. If I follow the low-sulphur elimination diet, with perfect compliance, for one to two weeks and see some improvement, then I suspect that I have eliminated something that was causing the problem. I can then begin the long process of adding eliminated foods back into my diet. 

The standard reintroduction test is to add one serving of the suspect food (for example, asparagus) per meal for six meals in a row (two days). If I start on Monday morning at breakfast, the reintroduction will be completed with the evening meal on Tuesday, and then I eat only the elimination diet foods while waiting for a reaction, if any. If there is no reaction by Sunday, then on Monday I will test the next food.

Even if no inflammation reaction appears after testing a food, it is important to wait the five days (Wednesday-Sunday) between tests— to give the body time to dispose of the test food and its effects.

GUIDE TO SULPHUR IN FOODS. I have not been able to find a recent, comprehensive list of foods ranked by their sulphur content (milligrams of sulphur in each 100 gram serving). The guide I am using is this old document, "The Sulphur Content of Foods," by Margery Masters and Robert Alexander McCance, now on pdf: 

So far, it has confirmed my earlier tests and worked perfectly as a predictor.

ALLOWED FOODS. To follow this diagnostic diet, I eat foods from the following list and no other foods, not even seasonings. All the listed foods are rated at less than 25 milligrams/100 gram serving. Numbers in parentheses are the amounts of sulphur, in mg/100 g serving. All the foods listed below should be either organic or pure (no additives of any kind, especially no sulphur-based preservatives). To save money, I buy pure foods, either frozen, fresh, or canned (in water or juice) and generally avoid organics, which are very expensive. (Fruits canned in syrup can be washed.)

In my personal Elimination Diet list, I have excluded some low-sulphur foods that have a reputation for causing inflammation problems in some individuals. Citrus fruits (grapefruit, oranges, and so forth) are examples, though I am not certain about them. I have included "nightshades" (eggplants, tomatoes, and potatoes). They cause no problems for me; but some other individuals report getting a reaction from them. If you are unsure of your reaction to citrus fruits and nightshades, then you might start by excluding them. You can use them as test foods, introducing one per week back into your diet. Be cautious about generalizing. I have a strong adverse reaction to grapefruit, but no reaction to lemons.

AMBIGUOUS RESULTS. In testing a food, you might get an ambiguous result. You might not be sure whether you are experiencing an inflammation reaction. My suggestion is to set that food aside. Test it again months later, and test it with a higher dose—for example, two servings per meal for six meals in a row.

ALLOWED FOODS. The following foods are the foods I know to be safe for me. They do not cause inflammation problems in my skin. I eat something from each of the first three categories at every meal.

1. STARCHES: celery root (9 mg/100 g); pumpkin, canned, pure (10); winter squash, such as acorn, fresh or in frozen blocks, pure (10); sweet potatoes (15); yams (15); parsnips (15); and Russet, red, or gold potatoes (boiled, peeled at dinner table, 23).

2. VEGETABLES: carrots (9 mg/100 g); beans, green ("French" or "string," 9); celery (9); eggplant (9); cucumber (11); artichoke hearts (16); beets (22).

3. FRUIT (including "salad fruit"); pineapple (3 mg/100 g); apples (4); plums (5); pears (5); peaches (6); apricots (6); cherries (7); honeydew and other melons (7-12); grapes (9); nectarines (10); tomatoes (10); blackberries (13); bananas (13); figs, green (13); strawberries (14); raspberries (18); prunes (19).

4. FLAVORINGS: honey (1); white cane sugar (14); vinegar (19); salt (23-35?).

Suggestion: If you want to be extra cautious, you might start with foods that are rated at 15 mg/serving or less, which would include yams and parsnips.

Burgess Laughlin

Nov 29, 2011

Low Sulphur Experiment is Successful

SULPHUR AS A SUSPECT. I have long suspected that sulphur (sulfur) might be the cause of my inflammation problems. Recently I finally found a list of foods evaluated for their sulphur content. I used that list as my guide in designing a low-sulphur diet.

A PROGRESSIVE EXPERIMENT. For six weeks, I have experimented with a low sulphur diet. At first I tried to eat only foods that contain less than 10 mg/100 g serving (about half a cup). Examples are celery (8 mg) and cherries (7 mg). Many fruits fit this category. Few vegetables fit it. No major starches, except pumpkin (9.5 mg) meet this requirement. I soon realized that I would have a lot of trouble getting enough protein. To do so, I raised my limit to 20 mg/100 g serving. Thus I was able to include sweet potatoes (yellow inside) and yams (orange inside), at 15 mg.

Since I had no problems with any food having up to 20 mg of sulphur, I lifted the bar again, to 30 mg. This expansion allowed me to add potatoes (22 mg), thus assuring me all the essential amino acids -- as well as a tasteful and filling meal.

I am now slowly and cautiously adding foods from an even higher level of sulphur. An example is asparagus (46 mg). So far I have had no adverse reaction.

SULPHUR VS. PRAL? Previously I used Potential Renal Acid Load as my guide for deciding which foods to eat. I avoided foods that tended to produce acidity in the kidneys after digestion; and I ate only foods that tended to produce an alkaline condition in the kidneys. The PRAL standard worked very well, reducing my inflammation problems by 99%. The low sulphur diet, however, is even more effective. It has wiped out the last 1% of the problems I have had intermittently for several years -- particularly the last of the eczema and occasional pain problems.

SULPHUR VS. SULPHUR-BEARING AMINO ACIDS? Have I actually identified sulphur, which is a natural chemical element, as the cause of my inflammation problems? I would say "no." Sulphur load might be only a proxy, confounder, or coincident indicator. The problem might be, not the element sulphur, but certain amino acids that contain a lot of sulphur, particularly cysteine and methionine. I do not know.

REMAINING PROBLEM. So far, I have been using only the amount of sulphur in each food as my guide. I have not been calculating the total amount of sulphur in a particular meal. I do not know which is more important. For the sake of simplicity, I will operate on the assumption that I should have only one higher-sulphur food per meal. That standard is easy to meet. I always eat fruit, which is very low in sulphur; I always eat roots or gourds, which are low in sulphur; and I always eat only about 1 C of vegetable, the one food I would consider at the higher sulphur levels. (I completely avoid all the highest sulphur foods: animal products and "seeds" of all kinds, such as grains, nuts, beans, peas, and especially seeds such as mustard, which has one of the highest sulphur ratings on the list.)

ACCEPTABLE FOODS. For an ever-growing list of acceptable, low-sulphur foods, see "What do I eat now?" -- originally posted on July 15, 2010. There is a link to it in the Key Posts list in the upper right corner of this page.

I will add to this post as I learn more.

Burgess Laughlin

Mar 30, 2011


LAST UPDATED (Bottom) July 6, 2012

(This post is a diary. For a summary and overview of my tachycardia and arrhythmia experiences see the October 13, 2013 post here:

Cardio-version ended my second episode of atrial fibrillation, as described in the January 25, 2011 post here. My cardiologist recommended that I take 50 mg of time release Metoprolol every morning for the remainder of my life. The purpose of the Metoprolol is to suppress the heart rate. By preventing it from beating too fast (for example, under great stress), the Metoprolol helps prevent the sort of instability that might lead to atrial fibrillation.
My doctor expects the atrial fibrillation to return. (He said, "When, not if.") He said the most likely causes of reversion to afib are (1) alcohol (which I do not drink at all) and (2) general anesthesia (which I hope to avoid for many years).
This post summarizes information about Metoprolol that I have gained through the help of an associate. As a layman, I think the information I cite is reliable, but each person must decide for himself.
WHAT IS METOPROLOL? According to, Metoprolol is a beta blocker, that is, a drug designed to block heart receptors. The drug blocks chemicals in the blood that stimulate heart beat. Metoprolol thus reduces heart rate and thereby improves efficiency of pumping and reduces blood pressure.
IS METOPROLOL SAFE? Though I prefer taking no drugs at all, I think Metoprolol (also known as Toprol XL) is a safe drug, compared to many others. Coincidence and correlation are not causation. No proof shows that Metoprolol always or generally causes any particular adverse conditions. However, as always, some users report one or more adverse conditions while taking Metoprolol. For most adverse conditions reported, the number of reports is very small compared to the much larger number of individuals taking the drug. Partial exceptions are sleepiness (10% of users), depression (5%), and intestinal upset (diarrhea or nausea, 5% each). I experienced all of those at one time, but the effects faded after a few weeks.
WHEN SHOULD I TAKE IT AND HOW? I should take my Metoprolol tablet ("Extended Release") at the same time every day, in the morning, with breakfast. I need to swallow it whole so that this time-release tablet dissolves slowly during the following 24 hours. (Thus, I am receiving the lowest dose at the very time when I need Metoprolol the least, which is during deep sleep, when the heart is naturally beating most slowly.)
IS 50 MG A LARGE DOSE? I read literature from my pharmacist that said the range available is 50 to 200 mg. (My doctor originally recommended 150 mg.) If that is accurate, then I am taking the smallest dose available as a whole time-release tablet. I am considering cutting each one in half, a procedure which is acceptable as long as I do not crush it and thus destroy its time-release capability.
UPDATE, April 30, 2011: Last week both my eyes became bloodshot. The left eye's right side was becoming dark red. Alarmed, I went to an urgent care clinic on Saturday morning. While giving me a routine preliminary examination, the nurse noticed that my bloodpressure was acceptable (115/65) but my heart rate was disturbingly low (40 BPM). Metoprolol is the most likely cause of both problems -- the bloodshot eyes and the excessively low heart rate. On the next day, and thereafter, I took half a dose, 25 mg, at breakfast. My eyes began clearing within 24 hours. My heart rate is closer to 50 BPM now (at around 10 am). I will continue at the half-dose while I consider ending my use of Metoprolol.
UPDATE, May 21, 2011: I have extended my dosage experiment by reducing the dosage of Metoprolol to 12.5 mg (cutting the tablet twice). So far, my blood pressure (typically 120/65 at 9 am) and my resting heart rate (typically 45-55) have remained low, even with a 75% reduction in dosage. My medication symptoms (somewhat loose stools, drowsiness, slight nausea between meals) are gone. I may dispense with the Metroprolol altogether.
UPDATE, August 26, 2011: A few days after the May 21 update, I increased the daily time-release Metoprolol back up to 25 mg and kept it there until August 25, when I stopped the Metoprolol completely. Now, on my second day, I am seeing a more positive mood, somewhat faster transit of food through my intestine, less drowsiness after breakfast, no more dry eye.
Unfortunately, my blood pressure rose (up by c. 10/10 to c. 130/80, averaged throughout the day) and my heart rate rose (up about 10 bpm, to around 65). (I was alarmed when my BP spiked mid-afternoon at c. 133/96, but then it declined into the evening. I will continue monitoring. If they do not go higher, I will continue avoiding the Metoprolol.
UPDATE, October 16, 2011: After returning to a 25 mg dose, shortly after Aug. 26, I continued for about a month and then once again took 12.5 mg daily until yesterday. Today is my first day trying again to live without Metoprolol. (I am now taking only a daily probiotic capsule and a twice-weekly Vitamin B12 tablet, 500 micrograms each.) In the days ahead, if my blood pressure and heart rate do not rise alarmingly, I will continue avoiding Metoprolol.
UPDATE, October 30, 2011: My blood pressure did rise alarmingly. Here are readings in the late afternoon two days after stopping: 122/87, 68 bpm at 405 pm; 116/86, 70 bpm at 408 pm; 121/88, 67 bpm at 430 pm; 142/96, 60 bpm at 530 pm. I have returned to taking 25 mg of Metoprolol every morning, probably for the rest of my life, as my cardiologist had suggested. A typical recent reading is: 126/74, 50 bpm at 810 pm.
UPDATE, November 28, 2011. OFF METOPROLOL! At the recommendation of a Physician's Assistant, at a new general practice clinic, I halved my dosage of Metoprolol for a week and then stopped taking it. So far, five days later, the readings are acceptable: E.g., 116/71 at 58 bpm and 128/72 also at 58 bpm. I learned that, at least at the new clinic (which has no cardiologists), cardiologists generally have a reputation for seeking a much lower heart rate than most primary care physicians would seek. I am now free of pharmaceuticals.
UPDATE, March 30, 2012. BACK ON METOPROLOL. On March 10, when I woke up, I had a very irregular heart beat and a very fast heart rate. It did not subside, even with deep breathing. I went to the local hospital. Diagnosis: tachycardia (cause unknown, but no thyroid problems), a slight anemia (cause unknown), and dehydration. The arrhythmia corrected itself. I was treated with intravenous water, with no improvement, and then with Ativan (valium), with no improvement. My heart rate was c. 120 bpm and blood pressure c. 140/90. Two days later, on Monday, at my doctor's office, my doctor and I agreed that returning to metoprolol was the safest, most sensible next step. I will take 50 mg, daily (time release), measure the results for 2 weeks, and then take my blood pressure and heart rate log to my doctor. In retrospect, I should not have stopped taking the Metoprolol.
In another visit to my doctor, I found that I am in "atrial flutter." I am waiting now to talk to a cardiologist who visits this small town. We will decide whether to simply continue suppressing the heart rate with Metoprolol or plan for another cardioversion to try to reset the rate and rhythm.
UPDATE, July 6, 2012. BACK TO NORMAL; REDUCED DOSAGE. I talked to the local cardiologist, a moderately aggressive interventionist. I rejected his suggestion to prepare for cardioversion. I chose instead to stay with 50 mg of Metoprolol to suppress the heart rate, and live with it. Around June 15, I noticed that I was no longer aware of my own rapid and irregular heart rate. I measure it daily, at the same time, for two weeks. The average rate was about 48 bpm, with blood pressure of about 120/65. The skips and pauses were gone, judging from what I could feel with my finger tips. I cut my Metoprolol dosage in half, to 25 mg/day, time release. On July 5, an EKG at my doctor's office confirmed those numbers and the proper rhythm as well. I will continue to take 25 mg daily, time release.
What might have caused reversion to a regular, though rather low rate? Possibly one of these changes: (1) I had increased by supplementation with Vitamin B12 to 50 micrograms, 5 days per week and 500 micrograms twice weekly, thus more than doubling the dosage; (2) I had started using salt again, thus reintroducing more iodine; (3) I had started eating one Brazil nut per meal (for selenium); and (4) I had stopped eating avocados (to which I might be allergic). How long will this last? We will see.

Comments are welcome, especially about your own experiences with Metoprolol.

Burgess Laughlin